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HONDA 2002-2004 GL1800/A Linked Braking System (LBS) Proportional Control Valve (PCV) Leakage

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Filed Under (Honda) by admin on 25-11-2010

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1. Pump the rear brake pedal four times. •If the brake pedal feels spongy, bleed the brake system per the Service Manual. After verifying proper brake system operation, proceed to step 2 below. •If the brake pedal does not feel spongy, proceed to step 2 below. 2. Place the motorcycle on its side stand, with the handlebars in the full left position . Lock the handlebars. 3. Place a scissor jack directly under the left front brake caliper as shown in the illustration. To avoid damage to the caliper, place a protective piece of rubber (such as a piece of inner tube) between the caliper and the jack. Wind up the jack until the front wheel is approximately 15 mm off the ground. 4. Measure the distance from the secondary master cylinder piston mounting bolt to the edge of the secondary master cylinder body (rod length of the secondary master cylinder). Record this measurement . • If the measured length is 30.3 mm, replace the PCV per the Service Manual. (This length indicates the unit’s secondary master cylinder is fully stroked, which means there is no hydraulic brake pressure acting on the PCV.) After replacing the PCV, proceed to the IDENTIFICATION section of this Service Bulletin. •If the measured length is longer than 30.3 mm , proceed to step 5 below. • INSPECTION/REPAIR PROCEDURE Record this measurement. Pump the rear brake pedal four times.
GL1800/A #16 ©2005 American Honda Motor Co., Inc. – All Rights Reserved 3 of 6 FEBRUARY 2005 5. Wait 30 minutes. Do not disturb the motorcycle in any way during this time. 6. Measure the distance again from the secondary master cylinder piston mounting bolt to the edge of the secondary master cylinder body (rod length of the secondary master cylinder). •If the measurement has decreased more than 1 mm from the measurement you recorded, proceed to step 7 below. •If the measurement is within 1 mm of the measurement you recorded, the PCV is OK. Proceed to the IDENTIFICATION section of this Service Bulletin. 7. Check the PCV for leakage. • If the PCV is leaking , replace the PCV per the Service Manual. After replacing the PCV, proceed to the IDENTIFICATION section of this Service Bulletin. • If the PCV is not leaking , you must diagnose the brake system problem before proceeding. After you have diagnosed and repaired the brake system, proceed to the IDENTIFICATION section of this Service Bulletin. NOTE: Any brake system problem not related to the PCV that is found while performing this Service Bulletin is not covered by this Safety Recall. If the motorcycle’s original factory warranty is still in effect or under HPP, file a normal warranty claim. If the unit is outside its factory warranty period or HPP coverage, contact TechLine for goodwill consideration. 8. Verify proper front and rear brake operation by pumping the front brake lever and rear brake pedal before riding the motorcycle

2003 SUZUKI SV 650 COOLING AND LUBRICATION SYSTEM SERVICE MANUAL

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Filed Under (Suzuki) by admin on 26-02-2011

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COOLING CIRCUIT INSPECTION Before removing the radiator and draining the engine coolant, inspect the cooling circuit for tightness. • * Remove the cowling. (SV650S) (C-7–7-6) • * Loosen the radiator cap stop screw 10 . (SV650) • * Remove the radiator cap O2 and connect the radiator tester to the filler. A WARNING Do not remove the radiator cap when the engine is hot. • * Give a pressure of about 120 kPa (1 .2 kgf/cm2,17.0 psi) and see if the system holds this pressure for 10 seconds . • * If the pressure should fall during this 10-second interval, it means that there is a leaking point in the system . In such a case, inspect the entire system and replace the leaking component or part. A WARNING When removing the radiator cap tester, put a rag on the filler to prevent spouting of engine coolant. CAUTION Do not allow the pressure to exceed specified pressure, or the radiator can be damaged. COOLING AND LUBRICATION SYSTEM 6-3 6-4COOLING AND LUBRICATION SYSTEM RADIATOR REMOVAL • * Remove the cowling. (SV650S) ( r- 7-7-6) • * Drain engine coolant. (r– 72-20) • * Disconnect the right and left radiator hoses from the radiator. • * Disconnect the siphon hose from the radiator. • * Disconnect the horn lead wires. rI .rr • * Remove the radiator lower mounting bolt. • * Disconnect the cooling fan motor and its thermo-switch lead wire coupler 10. • * Remove the radiator by upper mounting bolt. • * Remove the cooling fan. • * Disconnect the cooling fan thermo-switch. • * Remove the cooling fan thermo-switch. • * Remove the horn. CAUTION When removing the horn, hold the nut by spanner to prevent the horn bracket distortion. COOLING AND LUBRICATION SYSTEM 6-5 INSTALLATION • * Install the cooling fan and horn. 0 Cooling fan/horn mounting bolt: 8 N .m (0.8 kgf-m, 6 .0 Ib-ft) • * Install the cooling fan thermo-switch. ( l”76-9) • * Install the siphon hose to the radiator. • * Install the radiator in the reverse order of removal. • * Route the radiator hoses properly. (=9-22) 9-22) • * Install the drain plug with a new sealing washer and pour engine coolant. (=2-20) • * Bleed air from the cooling circuit. (r– 72-21) • * Install the cowling. (SV650S)

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Suzuki SV1000 COOLING AND LUBRICATION SYSTEM REPAIR MANUAL

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Filed Under (Suzuki) by admin on 25-02-2011

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At the time of manufacture, the cooling system is filled with a 50 :50 mixture of distilled water and ethylene glycol anti-freeze . This 50:50 mixture will provide the optimum corrosion protection and excellent heat protection, and will protect the cooling system from freezing at temperatures above -31 °C (-24 °F) . If the motorcycle is to be exposed to temperatures below -31 °C (-24 °F), this mixing ratio should be increased up to 55 % or 60 % according to the figure. CAUTION • Use a high quality ethylene glycol base anti-freeze, mixed with distilled water . Do not mix an alcohol base anti-freeze and different brands of anti-freeze. • Do not rut in more than 60%anti-freeze or less than 50 %. (Refer to the right figure.) • * Do not use a radiator anti-leak additive. A WARNING COOLING AND LUBRICATION SYSTEM 5-3 20 40 60 80100 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Density (%) Fig .2 Engine coolant density-boiling point curve • * You can be injured by scalding fluid or steam if you open the radiator cap when the engine is hot . After the engine cools, wrap a thick cloth around cap and carefully remove the cap by turning it a quarter turn to allow pressure to escape and then turn the cap all the way off . • * The engine must be cool before servicing the cooling system . • * Coolant is farmful; • * If the comes in contact with skin or eyes, flush with water. • * If swallowed accidentally, induce vomiting and call physician immediately . • * Keep it away from children . Anti-freeze density Freezing point 50% -31 °C (-24 °F) 55% -40 °C (-40 °F) 60% -55 °C (-67 °F) 50 % engine coolant including reservoir tank capacity Anti-freeze 1 100 ml (2.3/1 .9 US/Imp-pt) Water 1 100 ml (2.3/1.9 US/Imp.pt) Density (%) Fig.1 Engine coolant density-freezing point curve (°F) (°C) 302 150 (kgf/cm2) 284 140 1.5 c Q 266 130 0.9 0) a) :0 248 120 0.5 0) m Z3 230 110 0 (7 212 100 (F) (C) 32 0 14 -10 -4 -20 C 0 Q -22 -30 O) C N -40 -40 a) a) U- -58 -50 -76 -60 -94 -70 5-4 COOLING AND LUBRICATION SYSTEM COOLING CIRCUIT THERMOSTAT RESERVOIR TANK RADIATOR NO. 1 CYLINDER HEAD NO . 1 CYLINDER NO. 2 CYLINDER NO. 2 CYLINDER HEAD WATER PUMP INSPECTION Before removing the radiator and draining engine coolant, inspect the cooling circuit for tightness. • * Remove the body cowling. (=6-6) • * Remove the radiator cap ® . • * Connect the tester 02 to the filler. A WARNING Do not remove the radiator cap when the engine is hot. • * Give a pressure of about 110 kPa (1.1 kgf/cm 2, 15 .6 psi) and see if the system holds this pressure for 10 seconds. • * If the pressure should fall during this 10-second interval, it means that there is a leaking point in the system. In such a case, inspect the entire system and replace the leaking component or part. A WARNING When removing the radiator cap tester, put a rag on the filler to prevent spouting of engine coolant. CAUTION Do not allow the pressure to exceed the radiator cap release pressure, or the radiator can be damaged

GAS CYLINDER SAFETY GUIDELINES

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Filed Under (Tips and Review) by admin on 29-11-2010

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COMPRESSED AND LIQUEFIED GAS HANDLING The following requirements shall apply to the handling of gas cylinders: Compressed gases shall be handled only by properly trained persons. Training must include the contents of this guideline as well as any specific information relevant to the gas being used and emergency information outlined in ISU’s Chemical Hygiene Plan, available at ISU EH&S or Ames Laboratory ESH&A. Safety shoes are required when moving cylinders. Cylinders should not be dragged or physically carried. Transport cylinders with a handtruck designed for the transport of cylinders. Cylinder caps shall be secured during transport. Prevent damage to cylinders. Locate cylinders where they will be protected from physical damage by striking or falling objects, corrosion or damage from public tampering. No person other than the gas supplier shall attempt to mix gases in a cylinder. Cylinders shall not be subjected to artificially created low temperatures without approval from the supplier. Containers shall not be used for any other purpose than holding the contents as received. Damaged or leaking cylinders must be reported to EH&S or local safety office immediately for proper disposal. See disposal information on page 8. Cylinders shall not be picked up by the cap. Ropes, chains and slings shall not be used to suspend cylinders, unless cylinder was designed for such. Magnets shall not be used for lifting cylinders. Where appropriate lifting attachments have not been provided on the cylinder/container, suitable cradles or platforms to hold the containers shall be used for lifting. The user shall not paint cylinders. Leaking, defective, fire burned and corroded containers shall not be shipped without the approval of the supplier. See references in Appendix A.

POLINI X1 GENERAL INFORMATION AND SPECIFICATIONS

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Filed Under (Polini) by admin on 02-12-2010

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Air cleaner – Clean and reoil daily or after each moto to prevent motor failure and reduced performance. Transmission oil – change after every race, or at end of riding day. Chain – check tension and lubricate before every ride, adjust or replace as needed. Reoil after riding in damp conditions. Clutch – disassemble and clean clutch assembly frequently, every 2-3 races at least. Inspect kickstarter gears at this time. Ignition cover – remove cover and wipe dry after each ride or after washing bike to remove condensation. Piston rings – replace as often as every 3-5 races with expert rider, less often with less aggressive riders. Piston, pin, rod bearing & circlips – replace as often as every 8-10 races with expert rider, less often with less aggressive riders. Coolant – change yearly, make sure there is at least a 50/50 mixture of antifreeze if freezing temperatures are possible. Steering bearings – Check daily for looseness or play. Adjust and regrease as needed. Swingarm – Check often for looseness. Regrease several times a year. Replace bushings if any play is evident. Sprockets – check for worn or curved teeth each time chain is adjusted. Chain roller& wear pads – check roller for free rotation when checking chain. Make sure roller is not bent or damaged. Check chain wear strips on swingarm and chain guide frequently. Replace as needed to prevent chain from damaging motorcycle. Spokes – Check after each race or after each day of riding for looseness or damage. Wheels & tires – check wheels after each race for dents, cracks or other damage. Check tires for cuts, damage or wear. Check tire pressure daily and adjust for riding conditions. Shock – Check shaft area daily for signs of oil leakage or damage. Check swingarm and shock bushings for looseness. Forks – Check forks daily for leaking oil or damage to tubes. Make sure forks are not twisted check for smooth operation. Spark plug – check sparkplug color and condition after each race or end of riding day. Adjust jetting to keep plug from fouling or overheating. Silencer – If bike seems to be getting louder, replace packing and decarbonize inner tube. Expansion pipe – check daily for large dents, damage or leakage. Remove carbon from headpipe when pipe is removed. Have large dents fixed, or any dents within 8″ of the cylinder. Replace o-rings on pipe as needed to maintain a good seal. Footpegs – check daily for proper operation, pegs should spring back into place. Make sure pegs are not bent or overly dull. Handlebars – check bars after any crash for bending. Look for cracks near bar clamps. Replace bars that have been straightened more than 2 or three times, or if bar is badly bent. Aweakened bar can snap suddenly causing injury to rider. Throttle – check throttle for proper operation each time before bike is started. Remove and clean inside of grip and bar as needed. Grips – check grips daily for wear or looseness. Replace as needed. Use grip glue & safety wire to help hold grips in position. Calipers & pads – check pad wear and caliper function daily or after each race. Replace pads and clean calipers as needed. Brake lever – check lever daily for damage or wear. Make sure lever is at proper angle for both seated and standing positions. Leave lever clamp loose enough to allow clamp to rotate during crash rather than breaking lever. Check and adjust freeplay as needed. Brake pedal – Check pedal daily for damage and proper freeplay. Adjust rear caliper as needed. Reeds – Remove and inspect reed block during every ring change. Check reeds for signs of wear, fraying and cracking. Make sure reeds sit flat and seal well. Replace at any sign of wear or damage or at least once a year, more often for expert riders. Nuts & bolts – Check all nuts and bolts regularly. Make sure to check engine mounting bolts and swingarm bolt frequently

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All Harley Davidson Oil Recommendations

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Filed Under (Harley Davidson) by admin on 06-02-2011

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Harley Davidson has manufactured 9 types of engines from 1929 to the current model. Flathead (1929-1974), Knucklehead (1936-1947), Panhead (1948-1965), Shovelhead (1966-1984), Evolution (Blockhead) 1340 (1984-1999), Big Twins 1450 (2000 to current), Revolution/V-Rod (2001 to current) Ironhead Sport- sters (1957-1984) & Evolution Sportsters 1985 to current. Harley Davidson recommends SAE 50 or 60 for the engine oil in their Flathead, Knucklehead, Panhead, and Shovelhead. AMSOIL recommends AHR SAE 60 or MCV 20W-50 motorcycle oil for all these older models. Use AMSOIL SVG or SVO for the transmissions. Of these models only the Shovelhead has a chain case that is lubed, and is fed by the engine oil. In the Evolution 1340, Big Twins 1450, and V-Rods, AM- SOIL recommends MCV 20W-50 motorcycle oil in all 3 holes (engine, transmission, and primary chain case). AMSOIL recommends SVG as an alternative oil for the transmission, and SVO as an option for older transmissions. New seals are recommended where excessive leaking exists.

HARLEY DAVIDSON STAINLESS STEEL BRAIDED CLUTCH CABLE KIT REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION MANUAL

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Filed Under (Harley Davidson) by admin on 21-03-2011

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REMOVE CLUTCH CABLE 1. See Figure 1. Loosen clutch adjuster to obtain slack in the clutch cable (2) by performing the following: a. Locate cable adjuster (1) and slide off rubber boot (4). b. While holding cable adjuster with 1/2-inch wrench, loosen jam nut (3) using a 9/16-inch wrench. c. Turn cable adjuster until there is a large amount of free play at hand lever. 1 2 3 4 is 00889 1. Cable adjuster (1/2-inch) 2. Cable end 3. Jam nut (9/16-inch) 4. Rubber boot Figure 1. Clutch Cable Adjuster 2. See Figure 2. Remove the retaining ring (1), pivot pin (2) and clutch cable anchor pin (3) from the hand lever. 2 3 1 is 00891 1. Retaining ring 2. Pivot pin 3. Clutch cable anchor pin Figure 2. Clutch Cable Compoments 3. See Figure 3. Drain transmission lubricant and remove fill plug dipstick. Remove the six screws that hold the clutch release cover in place. Remove the clutch release cover, being careful not to damage the gasket. NOTE The clutch release cover gasket (P/N 36801-87B) will need to be replaced if torn or damaged to prevent transmission fluid from leaking from the release cover. 4 3 5 2 6 1 is 00894 Figure 3. Clutch Release Cover Screw Sequence 4. See Figure 4. Note position of retaining ring opening. Retaining ring opening must be positioned in approximately the same location during reassembly. Remove retaining ring (1). 5 4 1 3 2 is 00895 1. Retaining ring 2. Inner ramp 3. Cable fitting 4. Clutch cable 5. Ramp coupling Figure 4. Clutch Cable Connection 5. Pull inner ramp (2) and coupling (5) out of side cover. Hold inner and outer ramps together to keep balls from falling free. 6. Rotate the inner ramp to a position that will allow the coupling (5) to be disconnected from the inner ramp lever arm. Disconnect coupling from inner ramp. Disconnect cable end from coupling. 7. Back out threaded cable fitting from side cover. Ensure that o-ring is removed with cable. Discard o-ring. INSTALL CLUTCH CABLE 1. See Figure 4. Obtain braided stainless steel clutch cable from kit. Apply a light coat of oil on new o-ring and install o-ring (Part Number 11179) onto threaded portion of clutch cable (4). Insert clutch cable fitting (3) into clutch release cover. Do not tighten cable fitting at this time. 2. Connect cable end to coupling. Rotate ramps for best access and install coupling on inner ramp. Place ramp assembly in position in side cover. 3. Install retaining ring. Position retaining ring opening so it is located approximately over the outer ramp tang (the stop that prevents rotation). NOTE Replace clutch release cover gasket if torn or damaged. 4. See Figure 3. Place gasket, if removed, on side cover and install side cover. Tighten the six screws in the order shown to 84-108 in-lbs (10-12 Nm) . 5. Tighten the clutch cable fitting to 36-60 in-lbs (4-7 Nm) . 6. Place a few drops of oil inside cable housing. 7. Route clutch cable as follows: SOFTAIL MODELS FXSTD, FLSTS, FXSTS and FXST – Route clutch cable from the clutch release cover, across the frame, up along the front frame downtubes and across the front of the handlebars. Cable straps (item 1 in service parts illustration) to be used in same location as original equipment straps. FLSTF and FLSTC – Route clutch cable from the clutch release cover, across the frame and up along the front frame down- tubes, up to and behind the handlebars. Cable straps (item 1 in service parts illustration) to be used in same location as original equipment straps. DYNA MODELS FXDWG – Route clutch cable from the clutch release cover, under frame and across to the left side. See Figure 5. Insert cable (1) into clip (2) at the bottom left side of the frame

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APRILIA QUASAR 50-100-125-180 maintenance Manual

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Filed Under (Aprilia) by admin on 26-11-2010

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CHANGING ENGINE OIL CAUTION In case of oil leakage or malfunctions, contact an Aprilia Authorised Dealer . Do not dispose of oil in the environ- ment. Dispose of engine oil – stored in a sealed container – through the nearest waste oil reclamation firm or through the supplier. Carefully read page 34 (MAINTE- NANCE) To change engien oil: ◆ Ride for a few kilometres until engine reaches the operating temperature, then stop the engine. ◆ Position a graduated container (1), under the drain plug (2). ◆ Loosen oil filler plug (4) and drain plug (2). ◆ Let oil flow out of the sump. ◆ Loosen oil filter (3) and carefully clean it. ◆ Refit the filter and tighten fully. ◆ Tighten drain plug (2) and pour recommended oil into filler plug (4), see page 58 (LUBRICANT CHART). ◆ Tighten the filler plug. CAUTION Carefully tighten filler and drain plugs and ensure oil does not leak out. Periodically check for leaks at the casing cover gasket. Do not use the vehicle with insufficient lubrication or with contaminated or unsuitable lubricants, since this would cause early wear of the moving parts and may also cause irreparable failures Fluid reservoir (1) is under rear right wheelhouse. CAUTION Position the vehicle on firm and flat ground. ◆ Make sure that the fluid contained in the reservoir exceeds the ” MIN ” mark stamped on the reservoir. MIN = minimum level. WARNING Do not use the vehicle if the braking system is leaking fluid. CAUTION Do not use the vehicle if the fluid is below the “MIN” mark. 1
27 use and maintenance Quasar 50 – 100 – 125 – 180 CAUTION Brake fluid level decreases as the brake pads wear down. Should the level be too low: ◆ Check the brake discs and pads for wear, see page 27 (CHECKING THE BRAKE PADS FOR WEAR) If the pads and/or the disc do not need re- placing: ◆ Contact an Aprilia Authorised Dealer that will top up the fluid. WARNING Check the brake for proper operation. When the brake lever has exceeding travel or if you notice a loss of braking, contact an Aprilia Authorised Dealer . The braking system may need bleed- ing. CHECKING THE BRAKE PADS FOR WEAR Carefully read page 26 (BRAKE FLUID – recommendations) , page 26 (DISC BRAKES) and page 34 (MAINTE- NANCE). Periodically check brake pad wear. The rate at which brake pads will wear depends on vehicle usage, riding style and road surface condition. Outlined below is a quick brake pad inspection procedure: ◆ Visually check between brake disc and pads, check both pads (1) looking from the bottom at the rear end. ◆ Should friction material (of even one pad only) be worn down to 1.5 mm of thickness, have both pads replaced

AMSOIL Recommendations for All Harley Davidson

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Filed Under (Harley Davidson) by admin on 06-02-2011

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ISSUES: Harley Davidson recommends both gear lube and motorcycle oils for their equipment and there are many different models with corresponding specific oil recommendations. The variety of recommendations can cause confusion and lack of confidence in making the correct AMSOIL lubricant recommendation. The following charts outline the proper sequence of product recommendations for the Harley Davidson products listed. DESCRIPTION & RECOMMENDATIONS: Harley Davidson manufactured 9 types of engines from 1929 to the current model year. Flathead (1929-1974), Knucklehead (1936-1947), Pan- head (1948-1965), Shovelhead (1966-1984), Evolution (Blockhead) 1340 (1984-1999), Twin Cam (2000 to current), V-Rod (Revolution) (2001 to current) Ironhead Sportsters (1957-1984) & Evolution Sport- sters 1985 to current. Harley Davidson recommends SAE 60 or SAE 50 engine oil for Flathead, Knucklehead, Panhead, and Shovelhead equipped bikes . AM- SOIL recommends AHR SAE 60 or MCV 20W-50 motorcycle engine oil for these vintage models. AMSOIL SVT or SVO should be used in transmissions found on these models. Shovelhead is the only model with a chain case that is lubricated via engine oil. AMSOIL recommends MCV 20W-50 motorcycle oil in all 3 holes (engine, transmission, and primary chain case) on Evolution 1340 and all Twin Cam engines. AMSOIL recommends SVT as a secondary oil for the transmission, and SVO as an option for older transmissions. New seals are recommended where excessive leaking is evident. Ironhead, Evolution Sportsters and V-Rod use one lubricant for both the engine and transmission and AMSOIL recommends MCV motorcycle oil for this common sump.

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KTM 60 SX / 65 SX REPAIR MANUAL ENGINE

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Filed Under (KTM) by admin on 12-11-2010

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Carburetor adjustment Basic information about the original carburetor setting The original carburetor setting was adapted for an altitude of approx. 500 meters (1600 ft.) above sea level, and the ambient temperature of approx. 20°C (68°F), mainly for off-road use and central European premium-grade fuel (ROZ 95). Mixing ratio 2-stroke motor oil : super fuel 1:40 . Basic information of changing the carburetor setting Always start out from the original carburetor setting. Essential requirements are a clean air filter system, air-tight exhaust system and an intact carburetor. Experience has shown that adjusting the main jet, the idling jet and the jet needle is sufficient and that changes of other parts of the carburetor will not greatly affect engine performance. RULE OF THUMB: high altitude or high temperatures  choose leaner carburetor adjustment low altitude or low temperatures  choose richer carburetor adjustment * WARNING * -ONLYUSE PREMIUM – GRADE GASOLINE ROZ 95 MIXED WITH HIGH – GRADE TWO – STROKE ENGINE OIL . OTHER TYPES OF GASOLINE CAN CAUSE ENGINE FAILURE , AND USE OF SAME WILL VOID YOUR WARRANTY . -ONLYUSE HIGH – GRADE 2- STROKE ENGINE OIL OF KNOWN BRANDS ( I . E .SHELL ADVANCE RACING X). -NOTENOUGH OIL OR LOW – GRADE OILCAN CAUSE EROSION OF THE PISTON . USING TOO MUCH OIL , THE ENGINE CAN START SMOKING AND FOUL THE SPARKPLUG . -INTHE CASE OFA LEANER ADJUSTMENT OF THE CARBURETOR PROCEED CAUTIOUSLY . ALWAYSREDUCETHEJETSIZEINSTEPSOFONENUMBERTOAVOID OVERHEATING AND PISTON SEIZURE . NOTE: If despite a changed adjustment the engine does not run properly, look for mechanical faults and check the ignition system. Basic information on carburetor wear As a result of engine vibrations, throttle valve, jet needle, and needle jet are subjected to increased wear. This wear may cause carburetor malfunction (e.g., overly rich mixture). Therefore, these parts should be replaced after 1000 hours of using. Idling range – A Operation with closed throttle valve. This range is influenced by the idle adjusting screw 1 . Only make adjustments when the engine is hot. The idling speed can be changed by turning the idle adjusting screw. Turning it clockwise produces a higher idling speed and turning the screw counterclockwise produces a lower idling speed. Opening up – B Engine behavior when the throttle opens. The idle jet and the shape of the throttle valve influences this range. If, despite good idling-speed and part-throttle setting, the engine sputters and smokes when the throttle is fully opened and develops its full power not smoothly but suddenly at high engine speeds, the mixture to the carburetor will be too rich, the fuel level too high or the float needle is leaking. Part-throttle range – C Operation with partly open throttle valve. This range is only influenced by the jet needle (shape and position). The optimum part-throttle setting is controlled by the idling setting in the lower range and by the main jet in the upper range. If the engine runs on a four-stroke cycle or with reduced power when it is accelerated with the throttle partly open, the jet needle must be lowered by one notch. If then the engine pings, especially when accelerating under full power at maximum engine revs, the jet needle should be raised. If these faults should occur at the lower end of the part throttle range at a four-stroke running, make the idling range leaner; if the engine pings, adjust the idling range richer

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