Filed Under (Ducati) by admin on 11-11-2010
Displacement: 904 cc Bore: 92 mm Stroke: 68 mm Max. power: 75 hp at 7000 rpm Max. torque: 80 Nm at 5000 rpm Max. velocity: 220 km/h Pass-By noise: 82 dB(A) Homologation: 1992 Main Targets of Development Today’s motorcycle market requests more powerful engines, however, legislative noise and pollution limits are becoming more severe. In order to reduce development cost only small modifications were allowed. Entirely new designs of technical components (i.e. cylinder head) had to be avoided. In additon, the complete development had to be finished in a relatively short time of about three months. The most important targets of development were: better engine performance: – more max. power: +5 hp – more torque at low rpm lower noise emission: -2 dB(A) 80 dB(A) (89/235/CEE) change from carburettor to fuel injection system Figure 1, Ducati 900 SS
3 Engine performance calculation with WAVE A complete model of the new engine concept (fuel injection) with actual intake- and exhaust geometry allowed us to set up a reference engine-cycle-simulation model for further optimization. The most important parameter-variation during the cycle-studies to improve volumetric efficiency were: intake duct length valve timing constant or even lower exhaust backpressure Figure 2 shows the improvement in calculated engine performance due to different intake-duct length and modified valve timing. Figure 3 gives an example of accuracy of the calculation results compared with measured data of engine performance with new intake-duct length. Figure 4 illustrates the final engine performance with modified valve-timing, intake-duct length and new exhaust silencer. A comparison of measured performance data between the original and the redesigned engine gives shows the improvements in terms of maximum power and torque at low rpm.
Filed Under (Harley Davidson) by admin on 02-11-2010
Looking for high performance engine specifications for your Harley- Davidson motorcycle? Need to know what high performance equipment provides the best performance at the lowest costs for your H-D. Here you can look at performance modifications with the dyno runs of many different engine combinations, so you can pick your own equipment, horsepower rating and dollars to spend. An incremental approach to engine development has provided some good results on many engines. Find out what combination of carburetor, camshaft, exhaust systems, ignition systems, head work, pistons and the other high performance components work well. There are tests of some equipment that did not work well. Know what works and what does not. Compare the results of your current bike to those seen here. Are you getting the performance you paid for? If you have had success in your engine development program, send a picture of the bike and your performance results (dyno sheets or time slips) to the V -Twin Café for publication. The V -Twin Café is always looking for good articles on motorcycle performance work. If you write performance oriented articles, contact us. Twin Cam 88 and 95 cubic inches Twin Cam Engines from Harley-Davidson have a good design and some nice upgrades available from the local Dealer including a 95 cubic inch big bore kit. What can you expect from this engine? Here are some engine configurations that have been tested. 45 to 50 HP Stock Evolution Engines are the starting point for all the modifications. The only way to validate what the performance gain was for any change is to have dyno runs before and after. These are the before runs of several bikes. 55 to 65 HP Up to $750 Stage One Evolution Harley-Davidson engines involve no internal changes made to the engine. All modifications are made by changing or modifications to external components on the engine. These components include air cleaners, carburetors, exhaust systems and ignition systems. No special tools or training is required to perform stage one modifications.
Filed Under (Honda) by admin on 21-11-2010
motorcycle can be kickstarted with the transmission in gear by disengaging the clutch before operating the kickstarter. Check the engine oil, transmission oil and coolant levels before starting the engine (page 21, 23, 24). Cold Engine Starting: 1. Turn the fuel valve ON. 2. Shift the transmission into neutral. 3. If the temperature is 35°C (95°F) or below, pull the choke knob fully out. 4. If the temperature is below 0°C (32°F), open the throttle two or three times. (The engine requires a richer mixture for starting in cold weather. When the throttle is so opened, the accelerator pump will feed extra fuel to the cylinder, thereby facilitating starting in cold weather.) 5. With the throttle closed, operate the kickstarter starting from the top of the kickstarter stroke, kick through to the bottom with a rapid, continuous motion. (Do not open the throttle, As the carburetor is equipped with an accelerator pump, excessive fuel will be charged into the engine, and the spark plug will be fouled if the throttle is opened and closed repeatedly. Excessive fuel in the engine makes kick- starting difficult.) 6. About a minute after the engine starts, push the choke knob back all the way to fully OFF. If idling is unstable, open the throttle slightly. (1) FUEL FILL CAP (2) BREATHER TUBE WARNING (1) FUEL VALVE (2) CHOKE KNOB Warm Engine Starting: 1. Turn the fuel valve ON. 2. Shift the transmission into neutral. 3. Pull the hot start lever and kick-start the engine. (Do not open the throttle.) 4. As soon as the engine starts, release the hot start lever 1. Shift the transmission into neutral. 2. Pull the hot start lever and kick-start the engine. (Do not open the throttle.) 3. As soon as the engine starts, release the hot start lever. Starting the engine excessively charged with fuel by throttle blipping or other reasons: 1. Shift the transmission into neutral. 2. With the throttle fully opened, repeat kickstarter operation approximately 10 times very slowly to discharge excessive fuel from the engine. 3. Pull the hot start lever and kick-start the engine (Do not open the throttle.) 4. As soon as the engine starts, release the hot start lever. Stopping The Engine 1. Shift the transmission into neutral. 2. Turn the fuel valve OFF. 3. Lightly open the throttle 2 – 3 times, and then close it. 4. Depress and hold the engine stop button until the engine stops completely. NOTE: • Failure to close the fuel valve may cause the carburetor to overflow. (1) THROTTLE GRIP (2) ENGINE STOP BUTTON Break-In Procedure Help assure your CRF’s future reliability and performance by paying extra attention to how you ride during the first operating day or 15 miles (25 km). During this period, avoid full-throttle starts and rapid acceleration. This same procedure should be followed each time when: • Piston is replaced • Rings are replaced • Cylinder is replaced • Crankshaft or crank bearing are replaced
Filed Under (KTM) by admin on 12-11-2010
Carburetor adjustment Basic information about the original carburetor setting The original carburetor setting was adapted for an altitude of approx. 500 meters (1600 ft.) above sea level, and the ambient temperature of approx. 20°C (68°F), mainly for off-road use and central European premium-grade fuel (ROZ 95). Mixing ratio 2-stroke motor oil : super fuel 1:40 . Basic information of changing the carburetor setting Always start out from the original carburetor setting. Essential requirements are a clean air filter system, air-tight exhaust system and an intact carburetor. Experience has shown that adjusting the main jet, the idling jet and the jet needle is sufficient and that changes of other parts of the carburetor will not greatly affect engine performance. RULE OF THUMB: high altitude or high temperatures choose leaner carburetor adjustment low altitude or low temperatures choose richer carburetor adjustment * WARNING * -ONLYUSE PREMIUM – GRADE GASOLINE ROZ 95 MIXED WITH HIGH – GRADE TWO – STROKE ENGINE OIL . OTHER TYPES OF GASOLINE CAN CAUSE ENGINE FAILURE , AND USE OF SAME WILL VOID YOUR WARRANTY . -ONLYUSE HIGH – GRADE 2- STROKE ENGINE OIL OF KNOWN BRANDS ( I . E .SHELL ADVANCE RACING X). -NOTENOUGH OIL OR LOW – GRADE OILCAN CAUSE EROSION OF THE PISTON . USING TOO MUCH OIL , THE ENGINE CAN START SMOKING AND FOUL THE SPARKPLUG . -INTHE CASE OFA LEANER ADJUSTMENT OF THE CARBURETOR PROCEED CAUTIOUSLY . ALWAYSREDUCETHEJETSIZEINSTEPSOFONENUMBERTOAVOID OVERHEATING AND PISTON SEIZURE . NOTE: If despite a changed adjustment the engine does not run properly, look for mechanical faults and check the ignition system. Basic information on carburetor wear As a result of engine vibrations, throttle valve, jet needle, and needle jet are subjected to increased wear. This wear may cause carburetor malfunction (e.g., overly rich mixture). Therefore, these parts should be replaced after 1000 hours of using. Idling range – A Operation with closed throttle valve. This range is influenced by the idle adjusting screw 1 . Only make adjustments when the engine is hot. The idling speed can be changed by turning the idle adjusting screw. Turning it clockwise produces a higher idling speed and turning the screw counterclockwise produces a lower idling speed. Opening up – B Engine behavior when the throttle opens. The idle jet and the shape of the throttle valve influences this range. If, despite good idling-speed and part-throttle setting, the engine sputters and smokes when the throttle is fully opened and develops its full power not smoothly but suddenly at high engine speeds, the mixture to the carburetor will be too rich, the fuel level too high or the float needle is leaking. Part-throttle range – C Operation with partly open throttle valve. This range is only influenced by the jet needle (shape and position). The optimum part-throttle setting is controlled by the idling setting in the lower range and by the main jet in the upper range. If the engine runs on a four-stroke cycle or with reduced power when it is accelerated with the throttle partly open, the jet needle must be lowered by one notch. If then the engine pings, especially when accelerating under full power at maximum engine revs, the jet needle should be raised. If these faults should occur at the lower end of the part throttle range at a four-stroke running, make the idling range leaner; if the engine pings, adjust the idling range richer
Filed Under (Harley Davidson) by admin on 28-11-2010
During Break-In At 50 Miles (80 Kilometers): 1- Change engine oil and filter. 2- Inspect for fuel and oil leaks. 3- Inspect air cleaner element and service as required. 4- Check tightness of exterior fasteners, except head bolts. Engine Maintenance at 500 Miles (800 Kilometers): 1- Change engine oil and filter. 2- Inspect for fuel and oil leaks. 3- Inspect air cleaner element and service as required. 4- Check tightness of exterior fasteners, except head bolts. 5- Check operation of enrichment device and throttle controls. 6- Check engine idle speed. 7- Check tightness of engine mounts. Regular Service Intervals Regular lubrication and maintenance will help keep your new S&S engine operating at peak performance. The following table presents the required service schedule for normal operating conditions. Failure to complete the required engine maintenance can result in engine damage and an increase in emissions. Please refer to the motorcycle owner’s manual for any additional required chassis maintenance. Engine Service Intervals Item Interval Engine Oil & Filter Change at 50, 500, 2,500 miles (80, 800, 4,000 kilometers), every 2,500 miles (4,000 kilometers) thereafter1 Air Cleaner Element Inspect at 50 and 500 miles (80 and 800 kilometers), every 2,500 miles (4,000 kilometers) thereafter2 Tappet Oil Screen Inspect every 2,500 miles (4,000 kilometers). Replace every 5,000 miles (8,000 kilometers). Petcock, Lines, & Fittings, Vacuum Lines Inspect at 50 and 500 miles (80 and 800 kilometers), every 2,500 miles (4,000 kilometers) thereafter. Fuel Tank Filter Screen & In-Line Fuel Filter (If used) Inspect every 5,000 miles (8,000 kilometers). Engine Idle Speed Adjust as required. Operation of Throttle & Enrichment Device ControlsInspect at 500 miles (800 kilometers) and every 2,500 miles (4,000 kilometers) thereafter. Spark Plugs Inspect every 5,000 miles (8,000 kilometers). Replace every 10,000 miles (16,000 kilometers) or as needed. Ignition Timing Inspect every 5,000 miles (8,000 kilometers). Engine Mounts Inspect at 500 miles (800 kilometers) and every 5,000 miles (8,000 kilometers) thereafter. External Fasteners Except Engine Head Bolts Re-torque at 500 miles (800 kilometers) and every 5,000 miles (8,000 kilometers) thereafter. 1- S&S recommends that petroleum-based oil not specifically formulated for motorcycles should be changed every 1,000 miles (1,600 kilometers) after the break-in period. 2- Replace more frequently if required or if engine is operated in a dusty environment.